BRIEF HISTORY OF NEPAL

From the time immemorial, Nepal was an independent country; never conquered and still unique triangular flag is flickering with pride and prestige. Nepal is the only country in the world possessing the oldest history that dates back to the period of Mahabharata, the greatest epic of Hindu. This has remained a holy place for saint and sages till today.

The modern history of Nepal starts from Yalamber the emperor of Kirat dynasty 800 BC. They were a tribe of Jungle and mountain people migrated from various parts of central Asia and China. The epic Mahabharata mentions Kirats, inhabitants of Nepal, who fought bravely in the battle. According to the Gopalavamsa chronicle, the Kiratas ruled for about 1225 years (800Bc – 300AD). During the rule of the 7th Kirat King Jitedasti, Lord Gautam Buddha is said to have come to the valley with his several disciples and to have visited holy places of Swayambhunath and Guheshwori and preached his religious teaching. By this time, Shakya clan was ruling west Nepal, surrounding of Lumbini. According to some legendary accounts in the chronicles, the successors of Newars were the Gopalas (cowherd family) whose name often end in – gupta and are said to have ruled for some 491 years. They are said to have been followed by the mahisapalas (buffalo-herder dynasty) established by Rajput family of recent India.

Then, appeared Lichhivi dynasty who ruled from 4thcentury to 6th century AD. Mandev was the first king of Lichhivi dynasty who came to worship Changunarayan and erect stone pillar, supposed to be the first written inscription of Nepal. Anshubarma was the most highlighted king of Lichhivi dynasty who made stupendous palace named Kailashkut Bhawan according to the travelogue of Hueng Tsang, Chinese traveler. He had kept good relationship with china marrying own daughter Bhrikuti to Tsrong- Tseng Gampo. The stupendous palace of Anshubarma was supposed to be at present Hadigau according to the relic found during archaeological excavation. The history of Nepal remains dark from 6th to 12th century.

Malla rule started with Ari Malla in the 12th century. Over the next two centuries his kingdom expanded widely in to the western Nepal and Terai belt too; known as Baise / Chaubise Rajya (22 / 24 principalities). The later Malla dynasty of the Kathmandu valley commences with Jayastithi Malla at the end of the 14th century. His place became eminent among the Malla rulers because of his various social and economic reforms; cast division and land / weight measurement systems. After the demise of Yaksha Malla (grandson of Jayastithi Malla) the valley was divided into three independent valley kingdoms; Bhaktapur- Patan- Kathmandu in about 1484 AD. The division of Malla resulted debilitating wars and weakened them, that facilitated conquest of the Kathmandu Valley by King Prithvi Narayan Shah of Gorkha district. The last Malla ruler was Jaya Prakash Malla, Tej Narasingha Malla and Ranjit Malla of Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur respectively. Though Mallas spent most of the time in wars and conspiracy, almost all the mesmerizing monuments, architectures and world heritage sites are built by the Mallas. Considering the great contribution in art and architecture, and being an ideal government; Malla dynasty is known as the golden period in Nepalese history. It is said Mallas came from western Nepal and settled in Kathmandu valley, forefathers of today’s Newars.

The modern history starts with the unification of King Prithvi Narayan Shah, the ninth generation descendant of Dravya Shah, the founder of the ruling house of Gorkha. By this time, Nepal was already a multi-ethnic, multi-cultural and multi-lingual country. He foresaw the need for unifying the small principalities and an urgent condition for survival in the future and set himself to the task accordingly. His victory march began with the conquest of Nuwakot in 1744. He made successful strategy to attack Kirtipur first and entered Kathmandu valley. Jaya Prakash Malla of Kathmandu sought help from British and so the East India Company sent a contingent of soldiers under Captain Kinloch in 1767. But the British force was defeated at Sindhuli by King Prithvi Narayan Shah’s army. This defeat shattered the hopes of Jaya Prakas Malla and took asylum in Patan. Dramatically Kathmandu valley was captured while all the people were busy in Indrajatra festival. A throne was put on the palace courtyard for new brave king of Kathmandu. Hearing this, Jaya Prakash Malla and Tej Nara Singa Malla escaped from Patan and took refugee in Bhaktapur, but were captured after some time. Thus, Kathmandu valley was conquered by King Prithvi Narayan Shah in 1769 and made the capital of modern Nepal. King Prithvi Narayan Shah was successful in bringing together diverse religio-ethnic groups under one national. He made ‘Nepali’ the national language which used to call Khas Kura. He was a true nationalist and formed 27 principal guidelines of the country including foreign policies. Later, his campaign was continued by his brother Bahadur Shah and Greater Nepal was extended to Tista in the east, Kangada in the west and Ganga River in the south. During this expansion, Nepal had to fight with well-armed British army. Nepali army had to bear heavy loss but fought bravely and kept our army renowned worldwide. The Nepali army evacuated the areas west of the Mahakali River and ultimately the treaty of Sugauli was signed with the British in 1816. Among other things, this treaty took away a large chunk of the Terai from Nepal and the rivers Mahakali and Mechi were fixed as the country's western and eastern boundaries which is present Nepal.

The Rana dynasty appeared in the Kingdom of Nepal (1846 to 1953) when Girvana Yuddha Bir Bikram Shah was in throne and Bhimsen Thapa was ruling the country on behalf of the baby king. Suddenly, Janga Bahadur Rana captured political power, sentenced Bhimsen Thapa to prison and demoralized his wife with a rumor that she shall be walked naked in the city. Bhimsen Thapa committed suicide and his wife went ‘Sati (to be burnt oneself with dead husband in the same pyre). Since then, Bhimsen Thapa’s wife cursed “May this country suffers as the good man is always killed in conspiracy.” The effect of this curse is till today. No any ideal politician / nationalist can survive and achieve the goal. Shree Tin Janga Bahadur is notorious for his dictatorship and bravery. All the stupendous neo-classical palaces, occupied by present government of Nepal, were built by Ranas. They lived most luxury life and build castles in order to show off dignity. Chandra Shamser was the only magnanimous Rana who freed 60,000 slaves and opened schools for ordinary peoples too. But, in totality, Rana Regime is often known as the dark period in Nepalese history as the people were deprived from education and compelled to remain dumb against oppression.

Consequently, King Tribhubhan struggled against Ranas oppression and brought Democracy in 2007 BS (1951 AD). King Mahendra was pretty popular King and many liked Panchayat System. But, again many discontent arose among Nepalese people and agitation occurred against enthroning Kingship during the regime of Late King Birendra Bir Bir Bikram Shah Dev. Many of the ills of Nepal have been blamed on the royal family of Nepal and anti revolt started. Revolt of 2046 brought democracy, might not be in the true sense, with various reforms establishing multi-party democracy within the framework of a constitutional monarchy. Unemployment, corruption and Snobbery attitude of Nepali Congress invited civil war with so-called Maoist party. Now, Nepal is formally renamed “Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal”. It is said more than 70,000 innocent people lost their lives (though formal record says 13265 only) in the recent civil war. They had fought with beautiful hopes and dreams but still in futility. All the so-called leaders are busy in blaming each other and grasping chair just like a hungry Jackal. It seems all are manipulated by India and America. Therefore, People say “When it rains in India, Petticoat leaders open umbrella here in Nepal”. Not even 1 % of real Nepali people are satisfied with the present political scenario. The political stability and peace is yet to come. Approximately 98 % of real nationalists Nepalese are inviting Kingship but not like notorious Gyanendra. Nepalese people are looking for an ideal King who can become a beloved father of nation; Kingship maintaining law and order and crown - emblem of unification and prosperity. And, which is the necessity and the ultimate truth too.

Meaning of Nepal

There are many saying about the origin of the word Nepal. During Malla Period, only the Kathmandu valley was called Nepal. Till our grandfather’s time, people used to say “It takes 7 days walk to go to Nepal (Kathmandu Valley). The discussion upon few points shall make you understand about the origin of the word Nepal.

  1. The word Nepal is said to have derived from Sanskrit language Nipalaya which means ‘at the foot of the mountains’. And, it is true in reference to its location and the relation with the Himalaya.
  2. It has been suggested that the name comes after Tibetan language Niyampal which means "holy land".
  3. Nepal came from compounding the words NE + PAL (wool + tented house). Once upon a time, Nepal used to produce a lot of sheep wool and the houses were used to store the wool.
  4. The name Nepal is also supposed to be derived from the Sanskrit word "NEP" with the suffix "AL" (though it is still unproven). In those days, ‘NEP’ were the people who used to be cow herders, the Gopalas who came from Ganges plain to the Nepal valley and settled for the first time. Therefore, NEP + AL (settlement of Cow herders) sounds meaningful in the origin of Nepal word.
  5. Nepal is the best place for meditation and to receive spiritual energy flowing in the Himalaya. In those days, famous sage named ‘Ne’ used to meditate here. Therefore, Ne+Pala (Ne sage+protected) made the word Nepal.

MEANING OF OUR NATIONAL FLAG: Triangular Flag with the Sun at the top and the moon at the bottom is our original flag. It symbolizes nature’s creation, peace and ultimate truth. Flags crafted at old temples are evidence. Gorakhnath flag (having AUM in the middle portion) symbolizes the origin of human civilization, 'Sanatan Dharma’ and the Kingship for unity. Our existence lies in these two flags; it is our pride and power to rule the world.

GREATER NEPAL: Our Greater Nepal possesses 64 Pillars in the south. The length of our Bishal Nepal is 4816 km; the area has spread 368,000 Sq k.m and possesses 64 pillars in the south near by the River Ganga during Bahadur Shah’s nation conquest.

Aryans (meaning well cultured people) were migrated from the Himalayas of Nepal. According to our "Greater Nepal Map"- (just 80 yrs ago) the border had extended till Kashmir, Tajmahal, Calcutta, eastern Sikkim almost half of India. Moreover, our great emperor Bharat had ruled the whole Indian continent and still his Kingdom Bharatpur lies in Narayanghat district of Nepal. In fact, ancient name of India "Bharat" (India was the name given by British) inherits from the name of great Bharat. You need to turn the pages of Vedas and know the origin of Tantra-Yoga- Meditation. All the spiritual path seekers of the world including Jesus Christ and Yogis of India used to come to Nepal- receive immense spiritual vibration in Daman, Tripur, Annapurna and Rishekesh. Remember, Rishikesh is the birthplace of Lord Rishikesh in the river bank of Kaligandaki river - Ruru Kshetra of Palpa-Nepal. In those days, Yogis of India had come there- meditated- felt vibrant spiritual vibration. They could not take the place but adopt the name "Rishikesh" in present India. It is pity that the whole world is known about the original Rishikesh of Nepal. It is 160 km away from Tushita-Nepal. May you come and discover the facts.

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